Inductive effect can also be termed as “the I Effect”. It is the polarization of a σ bond as an effect got by either donating an electron or withdrawing an electron of the adjoining atoms or groups.
Characteristics of Inductive effect:
- It takes place as a result of differences in the electronegativity of two atoms which form a sigma bond.
- The physical and chemical properties of compounds is controlled by Inductive effect.
- As it moves away from the groups producing it, its magnitude decreases.
- I effect is a permanent effect.
- It performs on σ bonded electron.
How “the I effect” works?
Atoms of two discrete elements taking part in a bond, will not have the same electron density of a σ bond. The electron clouds will be inclined to go towards the more electronegative atom.
The Inductive effect is associated with the ability of Substituents to either donate electron density or withdraw electron density to the attached carbon atom.
Considering the above ability, the substituents can be classified as follows:
- Electron donating groups – CH3 , C2H5 , etc.
- Electron withdrawing groups – Nitro Group (NO2), a Cyano Group (CN), a Carboxyl Group (COOH), Ester Group (COOR), etc.
Types of Inductive effect (I effect)
There are two forms of inductive effect which perform different tasks. They are positive inductive (+I) effect and negative inductive effect (-I).
- Positive Inductive Effect: It is denoted by an alphabet “I” with a positive sign in front of it. In the positive Inductive effect the atoms release electrons.
Examples of +I are as follows:
H < CH2CH3 <C(CH3)3
- Negative Inductive Effect: It is denoted by an alphabet “I” with a negative sign in front of it. In the negative Inductive effect the atoms withdraw electrons.
Examples of -I are as follows:
H < C6H5< OR < I <Cl< CONH2 < COOH < CHO < CN < NH3+
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